Immunopathogenic events in acute infection of rhesus monkeys with simian immunodeficiency virus of macaques.
Infection of the rhesus monkey with simian immunodeficiency virus of macaques (SIVmax) was employed to explore the early immune events associated with the initial containment of an acute AIDS virus infection. In nine rhesus monkeys infected intravenously with uncloned SIVmac strain 251, high-level p27 plasma antigenemia was usually detected transiently from approximately day 7 through day 21 following virus inoculation. SIVmac replication in lymph nodes measured by in situ RNA hybridization closely paralleled the time course and magnitude of viremia. The containment of SIVmac spread by 3 to 4 weeks following infection suggests an efficient, early immune control of this virus infection. Anti-SIVmac antibodies were first detected in the blood at approximately day 14. At the time antigenemia was decreased or cleared, SIVmac neutralizing antibodies were present. A rise in circulating and lymph node CD8+ T cells also occurred coincident with the clearance of antigenemia and persisted thereafter. These CD8+ lymphocytes in lymph nodes had increased expression of both major histocompatibility complex class II and the adhesion molecule LFA-1; they also demonstrated decreased expression of the naive T-cell-associated CD45RA molecule. SIVmac-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte precursors were detected in both blood and lymph node by 7 days post-virus inoculation. These studies indicate that both virus-specific humoral and cellular immune mechanisms in blood and lymph node are associated with the clearance of viremia that occurs within the first month of infection of rhesus monkeys with SIVmac.
Reimann, KA; Tenner-Racz, K; Racz, P; Montefiori, DC; Yasutomi, Y; Lin, W; Ransil, BJ; Letvin, NL
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