Diagnostic accuracy of prostate needle biopsy.
The introduction of prostate-specific antigen screening has resulted in stage migration and an increased incidence of localized prostate cancer. In this era of increasing nonpalpable disease, it has become necessary to systematically sample the entire prostate gland. Transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy procedures have evolved greatly over the past decade from the original sextant biopsy. Technological advances, better understanding of zonal anatomy of the prostate, whole mount sectioning of radical prostatectomy specimens, and computer modeling of localized prostate cancers have all led to extended biopsy core protocols directed at the lateral zones of the gland. These have increased the diagnostic accuracy of needle biopsy and have become a standard regimen. However, it remains controversial how to proceed with repeat biopsy in the face of an initial benign diagnosis, and optimal biopsy strategy remains undefined. It is hoped that quantitative analysis of prostate biopsy histology may eventually provide some prognostic information to guide the patient and urologist in preoperative planning.
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