Speciation by reinforcement: a model derived from studies of Drosophila.
Reinforcement is an increase in premating reproductive isolation between taxa resulting from selection against hybrids. We present a model of reinforcement with a novel type of selection on female mating behavior. Previous models of reinforcement have focused on the divergence of female mating preferences between nascent species. We suggest that an increase in the level of female mating discrimination can yield reinforcement without further divergence of either male characters or female preferences. This model indicates that selection on mating discrimination is a viable mechanism for reinforcement and may allow speciation under less stringent conditions than selection on female preference. This model also incorporates empirical results from genetic studies of hybrid fitness determination in Drosophila species. We find that the details of inheritance, which include sex-linked transmission, sex-limited fertility reduction, and X-autosome epistasis, have important effects on the likelihood of reinforcement. In particular, X-autosome epistasis for hybrid fitness determination facilitates reinforcement when hybrid fertility reduction occurs in males, but hinders the process when it occurs in females. HALDANE's rule indicates that hybrid sterility will generally evolve in males prior to females within nascent species. Thus, HALDANE's rule and X-autosome epistasis provide conditions that are surprisingly favorable for reinforcement in Drosophila.
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