Basalts of the Eastern Deccan Volcanic Province, India
The Mandla lobe in the eastern part of the Deccan volcanic province represents an isolated lava pile having a thickness of-900 m.The large thickness of this lava pile and its spatial detachment from the western Deccan outcrop points to a plausible second source. The stratigraphic configuration of the central and eastern Deccan lava sequences and their possible stratigraphic correlation are primarily based on geology and chemical signatures of the lava flows. Based on variations in the incompatible element ratios, the lava sequences of Chindwara, Jabalpur-Seoni and Jabalpur-Piparia sections were classified into four informal formations showing similarity with the southwestern formations. Major and trace element abundances in fifteen lava flows of Jabalpur area are similar to that of the southwestern Deccan lava flows. It has been found that the Ambenali Fm. and a few Khandala and Bushe Fm. flows are present in the northeastern Deccan. The regional mapping and detailed petrographic studies coupled with the lateral tracing have enabled the recognition of thirty-seven physically distinct lava flows and is justified by their major-elemental chemistry. The 'intraflow variations' studied in some of the flows is very low for most of the major oxides. These thirty-seven lava flows are grouped into eight chemical types. The order of superposition in this sequence reflects that the older flows occur in the west of the outlier at the Seoni-Jabalpur-Sahapura sector whereas, the younger flows are confined to the Dindori-Amarkantak sector in the east. The spatial disposition of the lava flows suggests that the structural complexity in the lava flow sequence in the Mandla lobe lies between Jabalpur and Dindori. The juxtaposition of distinct groups of lava flows are observed near Deori (flows 1 to 4 abeted aginst flows 5 to 14) and Dindori areas. At Dindon and towards its south the distinct lava packages (flows 15 to 27 and flows 28 to 37) are juxtaposed along the course of Narmada river. The possible explanation for this could be the presence of four post-Deccan faults at Nagapahar, Kundam, Deori and Dindori areas. The vertical shift of chemically distinct lava packages at different sectors in the outlier contravenes the idea of small regional dip and favours the presence of four NE-SW trending post-Deccan faults. Major geochemical breaks, when traced out from section to section, exhibit shifting in heights by approximately 150 m near Nagapahar and 300 m near Deori and Dindori areas. The field, petrographic and major-oxide data sets considered in conjuction with the magnetic chron reversal heights, support the inference that four faults trending NE-SW are present in the Mandla lobe. A commonality in the mineralo-chemical attributes of the infra (Lametas)-/inter-trappean as well as weathered Deccan basalt further favours their derivation from Deccan basalt, implying the availability of Deccan basalt during the Maastrichtian Lameta sedimentation. This observation does not match with the models suggesting an extremely short duration of Deccan volcanism (<0.5 Ma) at the KTB, but is congruent with the models advocating a more prolonged Deccan volcanism.
Shrivastava, JP; Pattanayak, SK
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