Penetration of new azole compounds into the eye and efficacy in experimental Candida endophthalmitis.
We studied the penetration of three azole compounds, ketoconazole, itraconazole, and fluconazole, into the ocular tissues and fluids of rabbits in the presence and absence of ocular inflammation. Drug concentrations were compared with those found in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. The rank order of penetration into eye tissue was fluconazole greater than ketoconazole greater than itraconazole. Fluconazole penetrated freely into both inflamed and uninflamed eyes. The presence of inflammation improved penetration of all three compounds into ocular fluids and tissues. Penetration of these azoles into the anterior chamber of uninflamed eyes and into the cerebrospinal fluid was similar. All three azole compounds reduced the number of yeasts found in the eye in hematogenous Candida albicans endophthalmitis in rabbits when therapy was initiated within 24 h of inoculation. However, only ketoconazole significantly reduced yeast counts in the eye when therapy was postponed for 7 days.
Savani, DV; Perfect, JR; Cobo, LM; Durack, DT
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