Comparison of amphotericin B and N-D-ornithyl amphotericin B methyl ester in experimental cryptococcal meningitis and Candida albicans endocarditis with pyelonephritis.
Amphotericin B and N-D-ornithyl amphotericin B methyl ester were compared for therapeutic efficacies against experimentally induced cryptococcal meningitis and Candida albicans endocarditis with pyelonephritis in rabbits. Antifungal activity of the two polyenes in vitro was similar for the yeasts used in these experiments. N-D-ornithyl amphotericin B methyl ester gave a slightly higher concentration in serum than amphotericin B did, but both drugs had similar elimination curves, and penetration into the cerebrospinal fluid was poor for both. Despite these similarities between the two polyenes, amphotericin B was much more effective than N-D-ornithyl amphotericin B methyl ester in the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis in rabbits. For C. albicans endocarditis, both polyenes had similar cure rates, but in vitro measurement of fungicidal activity in serum did not predict treatment outcome. For C. albicans pyelonephritis, both polyenes showed efficacy; because higher doses of the less toxic methyl ester could be used, it sterilized the urinary tract more often than amphotericin B. These studies indicate that in vivo and in vitro experiments may be needed to predict the results of treatment with polyenes.
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