The epicardial field potential in dog: implications for recording site density during epicardial mapping.
Investigations into mechanisms and successful surgical therapy of ventricular tachycardia (VT) depend upon accurate endocardial/epicardial mapping. Deduction of local activation is based upon parameters derived from the field potential (FP) (monopolar recording) or its first spatial derivative (bipolar recording). Adequate electrode spacing is an assumption fundamental to the mapping process, but the electrode spacing required for accurate representation of the FP is unknown. The purpose of this work is to derive the electrode spacing necessary to accurately describe the FP on the epicardium. In 11 dogs, electrograms from vertical (V) (base to apex) bands having 40 electrodes and horizontal (H) bands having 40 to 80 electrodes were sampled at 1 kHz. The spatial bandwidths (BW) were computed according to two criteria: (1) the frequency yielding 2% mean squared error (MSE) computed at the time of the greatest integrated magnitudes of the Fourier transform; and (2) the highest frequency bounding 95% power computed at each msec throughout the beat. Implied electrode spacings were defined according to the sampling theorem. The 5th percentiles of the implied electrode spacing distributions were used to define the widest interelectrode distance required to prevent spatial aliasing. H-5th percentile and V-5th percentile were, respectively: 2% MSE (3.5 mm, 2.3 mm); 95% power (3.6 mm, 2.3 mm). Thus, a typical 20-kg dog requires more than 250 recording sites for accurate epicardial mapping. Extrapolating to man, these results suggest inadequate electrode density may partially be responsible for incomplete and ambiguous reentry patterns often observed during intraoperative mapping.
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