Issues critical to the successful application of cryosurgical ablation of the prostate.
The techniques of present-day cryosurgery performed with multiprobe freezing apparatus and advanced imaging techniques yield predictable and encouraging results in the treatment of prostatic and renal cancers. Nevertheless, and not unique to cryosurgical treatment, the rates of persistent disease demonstrate the need for improvement in technique and emphasize the need for proper management of the therapeutic margin. The causes of persistent disease often relate to a range of factors including selection of patients, understanding of the extent of the tumor, limitations of the imaging techniques, and failure to freeze the tumor periphery in an efficacious manner. Of these diverse factors, the one most readily managed, but subject to therapeutic error, is the technique of freezing the tumor and appropriate margin to a lethal temperature [Baust, J. G., Gage, A. A. The Molecular Basis of Cryosurgery. BJU Int 95, 1187-1191 (2005)]. This article describes the recent experiments that examine the molecular basis of cryosurgery, clarifies the actions of the components of the freeze-thaw cycle, and defines the resultant effect on the cryogenic lesion from a clinical perspective. Further, this review addresses the important issue of management of the margin of the tumor through adjunctive therapy. Accordingly, a goal of this review is to identify the technical and future adjunctive therapeutic practices that should improve the efficacy of cryoablative techniques for the treatment of malignant lesions.
Baust, JG; Gage, AA; Klossner, D; Clarke, D; Miller, R; Cohen, J; Katz, A; Polascik, T; Clarke, H; Baust, JM
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