Characterization of fracture toughness of renal calculi using a microindentation technique
We report our results on the characterization of fracture toughness of renal calculi of various compositions. A microindentation technique was used to determine stone hardness. The results showed distinct differences in fracture toughness of renal calculi which confirms the observations of clinical experience: viz. COM and brushite stones are much more resistant to shock-wave fragmentation than MAPH and CA stones.