COMBINED EFFECTS OF ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION, INTERNAL ACID PRODUCTION, AND HARVESTING ON NUTRIENT GAINS AND LOSSES FROM FOREST ECOSYSTEMS.
Atmospheric deposition can cause nutrient gains (N, S) or losses (Ca, Mg, K) from forest ecosystems whereas harvesting causes only losses. S deposition in polluted regions exceeds S export via whole-tree harvesting, but this is not normally the case for N. Both atmospheric acid deposition and harvesting can cause the loss of base cations, but because of tree selectivity in cation uptake, harvesting will have a greater impact on the export of scarce or limiting cations than acid deposition or internal acid generation. Nutrient losses can be minimized by timing harvests and proper fertilization.
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