Angular response of miniature ultrasonic hydrophones.
The voltage response of ceramic and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hydrophones was measured in the receive mode for angles of incidence ranging from 0 degrees to 90 degrees. The measurements were performed at 2.5, 3.5, 5.0, and 8.0 MHz; these frequencies are typical of those used in medical diagnosis. The results are compared to three theoretical models based on diffraction theory; correlation between the measured response and theoretical models is evident for some PVDF hydrophones but not for others, and not for any ceramic hydrophone. The effective radius, as defined in the AIUM-NEMA standard for diagnosis ultrasound, is calculated and compared to the test criteria established in that standard. All of the ceramic hydrophones and two of the five PVDF hydrophones failed to meet the criteria.
Shombert, DG; Smith, SW; Harris, GR
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