High-dose cyclophosphamide, carmustine, and etoposide followed by allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in patients with lymphoid malignancies who had received prior dose-limiting radiation therapy.
PURPOSE: To evaluate a high-dose chemotherapy regimen without total-body irradiation (TBI) followed by allogeneic (allo) bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in patients with lymphoid malignancies who had received prior dose-limiting radiotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-six patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL, n = 26), Hodgkin's disease (HD, n = 17), or acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, n = 13) with a history of previous radiation therapy were treated with cyclophosphamide (7.2 g/m2), carmustine (300 mg/m2 or 600 mg/m2), and etoposide (2,400 mg/m2; CBV) followed by allo BMT. RESULTS: Nine of 56 patients are alive and disease-free a median of 1,091 (range, 512 to 1,784) days post-transplant. The probabilities of transplant-related mortality, relapse, and event-free survival at 2 years for the entire group of 56 patients were .62, .59, and .17, respectively. Patients who received 600 mg/m2 of carmustine had a higher incidence of grade 3 or 4 regimen-related toxicities (RRTs) (14 of 22) than did patients who received 300 mg/m2 (12 of 33; P < .04), whereas there was no difference in relapse (.34 and .53, respectively, P = .73). Fourteen of 16 patients who received allo BMT for advanced disease (n = 12) or less-advanced disease (n = 4) but who were also eligible for auto BMT relapsed (n = 4) or died of transplant-related complications (n = 10). CONCLUSIONS: Allo BMT following a high-dose CBV regimen resulted in long-term disease-free survival in 17% of patients with lymphoid malignancies who had received prior dose-limiting radiotherapy. A high incidence of transplant-related complications, especially fatal idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS) and a high relapse rate limited success. Morbidity and mortality associated with carmustine 600 mg/m2 were high and were not associated with a decrease in relapse. The number of patients in this study eligible for either allo or auto BMT was limited and precluded meaningful analysis of relative effectiveness.
Demirer, T; Weaver, CH; Buckner, CD; Petersen, FB; Bensinger, WI; Sanders, J; Clift, RA; Lilleby, K; Anasetti, C; Martin, P
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