High-dose cytarabine and total body irradiation with or without cyclophosphamide as a preparative regimen for marrow transplantation for acute leukemia
Twenty-nine patients were conditioned for allogeneic marrow transplant with cytarabine (ara-C) (3 g/m2 every 12 hours for 12 doses) and total body irradiation (TBI) (200 cGy daily for six days) with or without cyclophosphamide (CY) (60 mg/kg) to determine toxicity and efficacy. Four patients had chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in accelerated phase or blast crisis, and 25 patients had acute leukemia, 24 at stages later than first remission. Three patients (10%) had fatal regimen-related toxicity and another 10% experienced severe toxicity in at least one organ system. The addition of CY to the ara-C and TBI regimen was not associated with an increase in the frequency of severe toxicity. Twenty-five of 29 patients engrafted eight to 33 days posttransplant: three died early before engraftment, and one patient failed to engraft. Ten of 29 patients are alive without disease, and the actuarial probability of disease-free survival for the entire group at 3 years is 33%. Three of ten patients with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANL), six of 15 with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), and one of four with CML are alive and disease free 25 to 42 months (median, 30 months) after transplant. High-dose ara-C (HDara-C) and TBI with or without CY can be administered with approximately the same toxicity as CY plus TBI. Phase III studies appear warranted to determine if these newer regimens provide improved results compared with currently used regimens.
Riddell, S; Appelbaum, FR; Buckner, CD; Stewart, P; Clift, R; Sanders, J; Storb, R; Sullivan, K; Thomas, ED
Journal of Clinical Oncology
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