Averting biodiversity collapse in tropical forest protected areas.

Published

Journal Article

The rapid disruption of tropical forests probably imperils global biodiversity more than any other contemporary phenomenon. With deforestation advancing quickly, protected areas are increasingly becoming final refuges for threatened species and natural ecosystem processes. However, many protected areas in the tropics are themselves vulnerable to human encroachment and other environmental stresses. As pressures mount, it is vital to know whether existing reserves can sustain their biodiversity. A critical constraint in addressing this question has been that data describing a broad array of biodiversity groups have been unavailable for a sufficiently large and representative sample of reserves. Here we present a uniquely comprehensive data set on changes over the past 20 to 30 years in 31 functional groups of species and 21 potential drivers of environmental change, for 60 protected areas stratified across the world’s major tropical regions. Our analysis reveals great variation in reserve ‘health’: about half of all reserves have been effective or performed passably, but the rest are experiencing an erosion of biodiversity that is often alarmingly widespread taxonomically and functionally. Habitat disruption, hunting and forest-product exploitation were the strongest predictors of declining reserve health. Crucially, environmental changes immediately outside reserves seemed nearly as important as those inside in determining their ecological fate, with changes inside reserves strongly mirroring those occurring around them. These findings suggest that tropical protected areas are often intimately linked ecologically to their surrounding habitats, and that a failure to stem broad-scale loss and degradation of such habitats could sharply increase the likelihood of serious biodiversity declines.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Laurance, WF; Useche, DC; Rendeiro, J; Kalka, M; Bradshaw, CJA; Sloan, SP; Laurance, SG; Campbell, M; Abernethy, K; Alvarez, P; Arroyo-Rodriguez, V; Ashton, P; Benítez-Malvido, J; Blom, A; Bobo, KS; Cannon, CH; Cao, M; Carroll, R; Chapman, C; Coates, R; Cords, M; Danielsen, F; De Dijn, B; Dinerstein, E; Donnelly, MA; Edwards, D; Edwards, F; Farwig, N; Fashing, P; Forget, P-M; Foster, M; Gale, G; Harris, D; Harrison, R; Hart, J; Karpanty, S; Kress, WJ; Krishnaswamy, J; Logsdon, W; Lovett, J; Magnusson, W; Maisels, F; Marshall, AR; McClearn, D; Mudappa, D; Nielsen, MR; Pearson, R; Pitman, N; van der Ploeg, J; Plumptre, A; Poulsen, J; Quesada, M; Rainey, H; Robinson, D; Roetgers, C; Rovero, F; Scatena, F; Schulze, C; Sheil, D; Struhsaker, T; Terborgh, J; Thomas, D; Timm, R; Urbina-Cardona, JN; Vasudevan, K; Wright, SJ; Arias-G, JC; Arroyo, L; Ashton, M; Auzel, P; Babaasa, D; Babweteera, F; Baker, P; Banki, O; Bass, M; Bila-Isia, I; Blake, S; Brockelman, W; Brokaw, N; Brühl, CA; Bunyavejchewin, S; Chao, J-T; Chave, J; Chellam, R; Clark, CJ; Clavijo, J; Congdon, R; Corlett, R; Dattaraja, HS; Dave, C; Davies, G; Beisiegel, BDM; da Silva, RDNP; Di Fiore, A; Diesmos, A; Dirzo, R; Doran-Sheehy, D; Eaton, M; Emmons, L; Estrada, A; Ewango, C; Fedigan, L; Feer, F; Fruth, B; Willis, JG; Goodale, U; Goodman, S; Guix, JC; Guthiga, P; Haber, W; Hamer, K; Herbinger, I; Hill, J; Huang, Z; Sun, IF; Ickes, K; Itoh, A; Ivanauskas, N; Jackes, B; Janovec, J; Janzen, D; Jiangming, M; Jin, C; Jones, T; Justiniano, H; Kalko, E; Kasangaki, A; Killeen, T; King, H-B; Klop, E; Knott, C; Koné, I; Kudavidanage, E; Ribeiro, JLDS; Lattke, J; Laval, R; Lawton, R; Leal, M; Leighton, M; Lentino, M; Leonel, C; Lindsell, J; Ling-Ling, L; Linsenmair, KE; Losos, E; Lugo, A; Lwanga, J; Mack, AL; Martins, M; McGraw, WS; McNab, R; Montag, L; Thompson, JM; Nabe-Nielsen, J; Nakagawa, M; Nepal, S; Norconk, M; Novotny, V; O'Donnell, S; Opiang, M; Ouboter, P; Parker, K; Parthasarathy, N; Pisciotta, K; Prawiradilaga, D; Pringle, C; Rajathurai, S; Reichard, U; Reinartz, G; Renton, K; Reynolds, G; Reynolds, V; Riley, E; Rödel, M-O; Rothman, J; Round, P; Sakai, S; Sanaiotti, T; Savini, T; Schaab, G; Seidensticker, J; Siaka, A; Silman, MR; Smith, TB; de Almeida, SS; Sodhi, N; Stanford, C; Stewart, K; Stokes, E; Stoner, KE; Sukumar, R; Surbeck, M; Tobler, M; Tscharntke, T; Turkalo, A; Umapathy, G; van Weerd, M; Rivera, JV; Venkataraman, M; Venn, L; Verea, C; de Castilho, CV; Waltert, M; Wang, B; Watts, D; Weber, W; West, P; Whitacre, D; Whitney, K; Wilkie, D; Williams, S; Wright, DD; Wright, P; Xiankai, L; Yonzon, P; Zamzani, F

Published Date

  • September 2012

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 489 / 7415

Start / End Page

  • 290 - 294

PubMed ID

  • 22832582

Pubmed Central ID

  • 22832582

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1476-4687

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0028-0836

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1038/nature11318

Language

  • eng