A pathway of neuronal apoptosis induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation: roles of nuclear factor-kappaB and Bcl-2.
As a model of the reperfusion injury found in stroke, we have exposed neurons to hypoxia followed by reoxygenation. Neurons treated with hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) respond by activating nuclear factor-kappaB (NFkappaB), releasing cytochrome c from their mitochondria, and ultimately dying. Further supporting an apoptotic mechanism, expression of the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-x proteins was increased following H/R. In this model, adenoviral-mediated transduction of lkappaB expression inhibited NFkappaB activation and significantly accelerated cytochrome c release and caspase-dependent neuronal death. At the same time, expression of mutated lkappaB prevented the increased expression of endogenous Bcl-2 and Bcl-x. In the presence of mutated lkappaB, singular overexpression of only Bcl-2 by adenoviral-mediated transduction significantly inhibited cytochrome c release, caspase-3-like activation, and cell death in response to H/R. These findings suggest a pathway where NFkappaB activation induces overexpression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-x, which function to prevent apoptotic cell death following H/R treatments.
Tamatani, M; Mitsuda, N; Matsuzaki, H; Okado, H; Miyake, S; Vitek, MP; Yamaguchi, A; Tohyama, M
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