Effects of intraoperative irradiation and intraoperative hyperthermia on canine sciatic nerve: neurologic and electrophysiologic study.
PURPOSE: Late radiation injury to peripheral nerve may be the limiting factor in the clinical application of intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT). The combination of IORT with intraoperative hyperthermia (IOHT) raises specific concerns regarding the effects on certain normal tissues such as peripheral nerve, which might be included in the treatment field. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of IORT alone to the effect of IORT combined with IOHT on peripheral nerve in normal beagle dogs. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Young adult beagle dogs were randomized into five groups of three to five dogs each to receive IORT doses of 16, 20, 24, 28, or 32 Gy to 5 cm of surgically exposed right sciatic nerve using 6 MeV electrons and six groups of four to five dogs each received IORT doses of 0, 12,16, 20, 24, or 28 Gy simultaneously with 44 degrees C of IOHT for 60 min. IOHT was performed using a water circulating hyperthermia device with a multichannel thermometry system on the surgically exposed sciatic nerve. Neurologic and electrophysiologic examinations were done before and monthly after treatment for 24 months. Electrophysiologic studies included electromyographic (EMG) examinations of motor function, as well as motor nerve conduction velocities studies. RESULTS: Two years after treatment, the effective dose for 50% complication (ED50) for limb paresis in dogs exposed to IORT only was 22 Gy. The ED50 for paresis in dogs exposed to IORT combined with IOHT was 15 Gy. The thermal enhancement ratio (TER) was 1.5. Electrophysiologic studies showed more prominent changes such as EMG abnormalities, decrease in conduction velocity and amplitude of the action potential, and complete conduction block in dogs that received the combination of IORT and IOHT. The latency to development of peripheral neuropathies was shorter for dogs exposed to the combined treatment. CONCLUSION: The probability of developing peripheral neuropathies in a large animal model was higher for IORT combined with IOHT, than for IORT alone. The dose required to produce the same level of late radiation injury to the sciatic nerve was reduced by a factor of 1.5 (TER) if IORT was combined with 44 degrees C of IOHT for 60 min.
Vujaskovic, Z; Gillette, SM; Powers, BE; Stukel, TA; Larue, SM; Gillette, EL; Borak, TB; Scott, RJ; Weiss, J; Colacchio, TA
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