Three-dimensional visualization of electrical variables in the ventricular wall of the heart
A set of programs developed to display the potentials and the magnitudes of the estimated potential gradients generated by defibrillation shocks are discussed. There are three types of displays. The first type displays three-dimensional surfaces constructed from electrode locations. Potentials or gradient magnitudes are interpolated over each surface and are displayed as spatial changes in intensity or hue. The second type of display is a three-dimensional surface reconstruction of the heart and electrodes. This display is used to verify the three-dimensional electrode coordinates that are obtained from digitized images of the heart. The third type of display is a volume reconstruction of the myocardium. In this display, spatial changes in potentials or gradient magnitudes in the myocardial volume are represented by spatially varying the hues of the volume elements. The electrical values of most volume elements are interpolated by means of a three-dimensional method based on discrete smooth interpolation.