Direct optical imaging of graphene in vitro by nonlinear femtosecond laser spectral reshaping.


Journal Article

Nonlinear optical microscopy, based on femtosecond laser spectral reshaping, characterized and imaged graphene samples made from different methods, both on slides and in a biological environment. This technique clearly discriminates between graphene flakes with different numbers of layers and reveals the distinct nonlinear optical properties of reduced graphene oxide as compared to mechanically exfoliated or chemical vapor deposition grown graphene. The nonlinearity makes it applicable to scattering samples (such as tissue) as opposed to previous methods, such as transmission. This was demonstrated by high-resolution imaging of breast cancer cells incubated with graphene flakes.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Li, B; Cheng, Y; Liu, J; Yi, C; Brown, AS; Yuan, H; Vo-Dinh, T; Fischer, MC; Warren, WS

Published Date

  • November 2012

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 12 / 11

Start / End Page

  • 5936 - 5940

PubMed ID

  • 23101475

Pubmed Central ID

  • 23101475

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1530-6992

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1530-6984

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1021/nl303358p


  • eng