In vitro metabolism and interactions of pyridostigmine bromide, N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide, and permethrin in human plasma and liver microsomal enzymes.
1. The in vitro human plasma activity and liver microsomal metabolism of pyridostigmine bromide (PB), a prophylactic treatment against organophosphate nerve agent attack, N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), an insect repellent, and permethrin, a pyrethroid insecticide, either alone or in combination were investigated. 2. The three chemicals disappeared from plasma in the following order: permethrin > PB > DEET. The combined incubation of DEET with either permethrin or PB had no effect on permethrin or PB. Binary incubation with permethrin decreased the metabolism of PB and its disappearance from plasma and binary incubation with PB decreased the metabolism of permethrin and its clearance from plasma. Incubation with PB and/or permethrin shortened the DEET terminal half-life in plasma. These agents behaved similarly when studied in liver microsomal assays. The combined incubation of DEET with PB or permethrin (alone or in combination) diminished DEET metabolism in microsomal systems. 3. The present study evidences that PB and permethrin are metabolized by both human plasma and liver microsomal enzymes and that DEET is mainly metabolized by liver oxidase enzymes. Combined exposure to test chemicals increases their neurotoxicity by impeding the body's ability to eliminate them because of the competition for detoxifying enzymes.
Abu-Qare, AW; Abou-Donia, MB
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