Interaction of pyridostigmine bromide and N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide alone and in combination with P-glycoprotein expressed in Escherichia coli leaky mutant.
P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the most extensively studied ATP-binding transporter, functions as a biological barrier by extruding toxic substances and xenobiotics out of the cell. This study was carried out to determine the effect of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) and pyridostigmine bromide (PB), alone and in combination, on P-gp expression using Escherichia coli leaky mutant transformed with Mdr1 gene (pT5-7/mdr1), which codes for P-gp or lactose permease (pT5-7/lacY) as negative control. Also, daunomycin (a known P-gp sustrate) was used as a positive control and reserpine (a known P-gp inhibitor) served as a negative control. An in vitro cell-resistant assay was used to monitor the potential of test compounds to interact with P-gp. Following exposure of the cells to pyridostigmine bromide or daunomycin, P-gp conferred significant resistance against both compounds, while reserpine and DEET significantly inhibited the glycoprotein. Cells were grown in the presence of noncytotoxic concentrations of daunomycin, pyridostigmine bromide, reserpine, or DEET, and membrane fractions were examined by Western immunoblotting for expression of P-gp. Daunomycin induced P-gp expression quantitatively more than pyridostigmine bromide, while reserpine and DEET significantly inhibited P-gp expression in cells harboring mdr1. Photoaffinity labeling experiment performed with the P-gp ligand [125I]iodoarylazidoprazosin demonstrated that compounds that induced or inhibited P-gp transport activity also bound to P-gp. DEET was also found to be a potent inhibitor of P-gp-mediated ATPase activity, whereas pyridostigmine bromide increased P-gp ATPase activity. Cells expressing P-gp or lac permease were exposed to pyridostigmine bromide and DEET, alone and in combination. Noncytotoxic concentrations of DEET significantly inhibited P-gp-mediated resistance against pyridostigmine bromide, resulting in a reduction of the number of effective drug interactions with biological targets. An explanation of these results might be that DEET is a third-generation inhibitor of P-gp; it has high potency and specificity for P-gp, it inhibits hydrolysis of ATP, it exerts no appreciable impact on cytochrome P-450 3A4, and it prevents transport of xenobiotics, such as pyridostigmine bromide, out of the cell. This conclusion explains, at least in part, the increased toxicity and bioavailability of pyridostigmine bromide following combined administration with DEET. This study improves our understanding of the basis of chemical interactions with DEET by defining the ability of drugs to interact with P-gp either as inhibitors or substrates, which may in turn lead to altered efficacy or toxicity.
El-Masry, EM; Abou-Donia, MB
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