Early differential elevation and persistence of phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (p-CREB) in the central nervous system of hens treated with diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate, an OPIDN-causing compound.
Diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate (DFP) produces organophosphorus-ester-induced delayed neurotoxicity in sensitive species. We studied the effect of single dose of DFP on the expression of phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (p-CREB), which is a well known transcription factor involved in several pathways mediating different types of external stimuli. The hens were perfused with neutral buffered formalin at different time points, i.e., 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 hrs, as well as 1, 2, 5, and 20 days after dosing. The central nervous system regions of the whole brain were dissected and 7-micron sections were stained for either p-CREB immunopositivity or with hematoxylin and eosin. Results indicated an early differential increase of p-CREB immunopositivity in susceptible regions such as cerebellum, brainstem, and midbrain within 2 hrs. These induced levels persisted upto 5 days in these tissues, although the time course of p-CREB immunopositivity was distinctly different for each region. In the cerebellum induction of p-CREB was seen in the granular layer where both the granulocytes and the glial cells showed induction. Increased immunopositivity for p-CREB in the Purkinje cells and in some basket cells of the molecular layer was noticed over time, but the induction was not as great as in the granular layer. Of all the tissues cerebellum showed the strongest intensity of immunopositivity of the cells as well as the highest (absolute) number of pCREB-positive cells. The brainstem showed a similar fluctuating pattern like the cerebellum with the highest percentage increase of the immunoreactive cells at 5 days preceded by the lowest dip in immunopositivity at 2 days. In the midbrain, there was a time-dependent increase in the immunopositivity from 0.5 hr onwards until reaching control levels at 20 days. Immunopositivity was also noted in portions of the spina medularis and spina oblongata. The cerebrum (non-susceptible tissue) of DFP-treated hens did not show much deviation from the controls. The endothelial cells of the susceptible regions showed induction at early time points, in contrast to the absence of induction in cerebrum. Spatial and temporal differences in the immunopositivity pattern indicate probable involvement of CREB-independent pathways also. Overall, the complex induction pattern of p-CREB, along with our earlier observations of the early induction of c-fos, c-jun and Protein Kinase A (PKA) as well as the induction of Calcium2+/Calmodulin dependent Protein Kinase II (CaM kinase II) at later periods, strongly suggest an activator role of CREB mediated pathways that may lead to the clinical development of delayed neurotoxicity.
Damodaran, TV; Abdel-Rahman, AA; Suliman, HB; Abou-Donia, MB
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