Differential alteration of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) mRNA in the central nervous system of hens treated with diisopropylphosphorofluoridate (DFP).
A single dose (1.7 mg/kg, s.c.) of diisopropylphosphorofluoridate (DFP) causes organophosphorus ester-induced delayed neurotoxicity (OPIDN) in susceptible species. We studied the effects of DFP administration on the mRNA expression of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), an important glycolytic protein at different time points (1, 2, 5, 10 and 20 days) post-treatment. Total RNA was extracted from cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem, midbrain, and spinal cord of the control and DFP-treated hens, and northern blots were prepared using standard protocols and hybridized with GAPDH, as well as beta-actin and 28S RNA cDNA (control) probes. There was a distinct spatial/temporal mRNA expression pattern for the different tissues studied. Non-susceptible tissue, cerebrum showed a dramatic increase in GAPDH mRNA at day 1, post-treatment and levels remained high at all time points, suggestive of protective mechanisms from the beginning. In contrast, highly susceptible tissues like brainstem, spinal cord and midbrain showed either no elevation or slight down-regulation at day 1, suggesting trauma and cell injury/cell death. Overall, there was moderate level of induction during the subsequent time points in these tissues, indicative of pathways of either recovery or degeneration. Cerebellum being the less susceptible tissue showed moderate increase initially, followed by higher induction, suggestive of rapid recovery. Our current data on GAPDH provides an important link in this complex network of molecular changes involving pathways identified by our group and others, such as nitric oxide (NO), CaM kinase-II (CaMK-II), protein kinase-A (PKA), c-fos, and phosphorylated-CREB (p-CREB) in DFP-induced OPIDN.
Damodaran, TV; Abdel-Rahman, A; El-Sourady, MH; Abou-Donia, MB
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
Pubmed Central ID
Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)