Placental transfer and pharmacokinetics of a single dermal dose of [14C]methyl parathion in rats.
The pharmacokinetics and placental transfer of a single dermal 10.0 mg (10microCi)/kg dose of uniformly phenyl-labeled [14C] methyl parathion (0,0-dimethyl 0-4-nitrophenyl phosphorothioate) were investigated in pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats at 14-18 days of gestation. Three rats were killed at each time interval: 1, 2, 4, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after dosing. Radioactivity disappeared biexponentially from the administration sites, which retained 50% and 3% of the dose after 1 h and 96 h, respectively. Most of the absorbed radioactivity was excreted in the urine (91%). Only 3% of the 14C was recovered in the feces. One h after the administration, radioactivity was detected in all tissues, including fetal tissue. The peak maternal plasma concentration of radioactivity (ng methyl parathion equivalent/ml) was 1005 at 2 h, compared to 318 ng for fetal plasma at 12 h. The maximum concentrations of radioactivity (ng methyl parathion equivalent/g), detected in most tissues within 12 h of dosing, were, in descending order: adipose tissue (67,532), kidney (1,571), spleen (1,256), spinal cord (1,004), heart (729), liver (706), brain (546), placenta (389), and fetus (256). The metabolism studies showed that methyl parathion, detected by HPLC, was the major compound identified in plasma and tissues. The maximum concentration detected was in plasma, at 513 ng/ml, and in the following tissues (ng/g fresh tissue): kidney (819), fetus (668), placenta (394), liver (375), and brain (282). The metabolite methyl paraoxon was detected in maternal brain and liver at maximum concentrations (ng/g fresh tissue) of 135 and 64 after 12 h and 4 h respectively, while p-nitrophenol was only detected in liver at a maximum concentration of 21 ng/g 72 h after dosing. Pharmacokinetic studies showed that methyl parathion disappeared monoexponentially from plasma and tissues. The half-life of elimination of methyl parathion from plasma was 11 h corresponding to a constant rate value of 0.06 h(-1). The results indicate that skin and placenta are poor barriers against methyl parathion permeability, resulting in a rapid and extensive dermal absorption of this insecticide and extensive placental transfer. This is indicated by the relative residence (R(R)) of methyl parathion in the plasma, which was largest in the placenta followed by the fetus. This study suggests that pregnant women and fetuses may be at risk of cholinergic toxicity following dermal exposure to methyl parathion.
Abu-Qare, AW; Abdel-Rahman, AA; Kishk, AM; Abou-Donia, MB
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