Enhanced calmodulin binding concurrent with increased kinase-dependent phosphorylation of cytoskeletal proteins following a single subcutaneous injection of diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate in hens.
Diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate (DFP) produces Type I organophosphorus compound-induced delayed neurotoxicity (OPIDN) in adult female chickens. We have proposed that calcium/calmodulin protein kinase II (CaM kinase II) plays a role in the development of OPIDN by increasing the phosphorylation of cytoskeletal proteins. We investigated in vivo the effects of treatment of DFP on CaM kinase II-dependent phosphorylation. In isolated brain supernatants from DFP-treated hens, calmodulin binding increased concurrent with increases in CaM kinase II-dependent autophosphorylation and phosphorylation of cytoskeleton proteins. There were no changes in the relative amounts of the enzyme based on immunobinding studies of antibodies to the CaM kinase II. In the absence of any exogenously added substrate. CaM kinase II and microtubule associated protein-2 (MAP-2) exhibited substantially increased phosphorylation, 833 and 275%, respectively, over brain supernatants from untreated hens. Moreover, isolated brain supernatants from treated hens with exogenously added cytoskeletal proteins and myelin basic protein (MBP) exhibited significant increases in phosphorylation over control, 233, 332 and 60%, for MAP-2, tubulin, and MBP, respectively. 125I-Calmodulin binding studies revealed a 136% increase in calmodulin binding to CaM kinase II in treated hens when compared to control groups. The data suggest that in vivo DFP treatment increases the percentage of unphosphorylated, active CaM kinase II resulting in increased calmodulin binding and subsequent enhanced phosphorylation of cytoskeletal proteins that leads to their aggregation and the production of axonal degeneration.
Abou-Donia, MB; Viana, ME; Gupta, RP; Anderson, JK
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