Brain acetylcholinesterase, acid phosphatase, and 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide-3'-phosphohydrolase and plasma butyrylcholinesterase activities in hens treated with a single dermal neurotoxic dose of S,S,S-tri-n-butyl phosphorotrithioate.
The changes in brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE), acid phosphatase (APase), and 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide-3'-phosphohydrolase (CNP), and plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activities were investigated in hens treated with a single, dermal dose (100-1000 mg/kg) of S,S,S-tri-n-butyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF). Three control groups consisted of hens left untreated, given a single, dermal dose of 500 mg/kg tri-o-cresyl phosphate (TOCP, positive control for organophophorous compound-induced delayed neurotoxicity), or 10 mg/kg O,O-diethyl O-4-nitrophenyl phosphorothioate (parathion, negative control). Brain AChE activity, determined 28 days after application, was significantly inhibited in hens given 500-1,000 mg/kg DEF and in TOCP- and parathion-treated hens. In contrast, brain APase and CNP activities were significantly higher in all treatments as compared with those of the untreated hens. Parathion, however, caused the least increase in these enzymatic activities as compared to DEF or TOCP. A single, dermal dose of DEF or TOCP also caused an initial decrease in plasma BuChE activity with maximum depression of enzymatic activity observed 1 to 7 days after administration. This decrease was dose dependent and the enzymatic activity showed partial recovery with time. Hens treated with single, dermal doses of DEF, ranging from 250 to 1000 mg/kg, developed ataxia which progressed to paralysis in some hens. Histopathologic examination revealed axon and myelin degeneration of the spinal cord and peripheral nerves of some hens. The severity and frequency of the neuropathologic lesions were dose dependent. Neurologic dysfunctions and neuropathologic lesions seen in DEF-treated hens were similar to those exhibited in TOCP-treated hens. While parathion produced acute cholinergic effects, it did not cause delayed neurotoxicity. The changes in brain and plasma enzymes are discussed in relation to their role in the pathogenesis of DEF-induced delayed neurotoxicity.
Abou-Donia, MB; Abdo, KM; Timmons, PR; Proctor, JE
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