Induction of hepatic microsomal cytochrome P-450 and inhibition of brain, liver, and plasma esterases by an acute dose of S,S,S-tri-n-butyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF) in the adult hen.
The differential effects of oral and dermal administration of single doses of 100 to 1000 mg/kg S,S,S-tri-n-butyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF) on nonspecific esterases and liver metabolism enzymes were investigated one day following administration. O,O-Diethyl O-(4-nitrophenyl) phosphorothioate (parathion) and tri-o-cresyl phosphate (TOCP) were used as negative and positive controls for organophosphorus-induced delayed neurotoxicity (OPIDN). Brain acetylcholinesterase was significantly inhibited with topical doses of 500 and 1,000 mg/kg of DEF and with orally and dermally applied parathion. Plasma cholinesterase and liver microsomal carboxylesterase activities were significantly reduced from control in all treatment groups. Neurotoxic esterase (NTE) was significantly decreased from control with topical dosing of 200, 500, and 1000 mg/kg DEF and with TOCP treatments. Oral doses of DEF increased cytochrome P-450 content by 70 to 200% while dermal application caused a 200 to 325% increase over control. p-Chloro-N-methylaniline demethylase was also increased by DEF treatments but to a lesser extent than that of aniline hydroxylase or cytochrome P-450 content. TOCP and parathion had no significant effect on liver microsomal oxidative enzymes. Liver microsomal proteins from hens treated with phenobarbital (PB), 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC), or DEF were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. A striking increase in a 49K protein band in microsomes from PB and DEF (616 and 338%, respectively) treated hens was seen, while the 55K protein band showed an 861% increase in microsomes from 3MC-treated hens. In conclusion, dermally applied DEF was more effective in inhibiting esterases and inducing cytochrome P-450 than orally administered DEF; toxicity was directly related to the dose and route of administration.
Lapadula, DM; Carrington, CD; Abou-Donia, MB
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