Risk factors for cytomegalovirus viremia and disease developing after prophylaxis in high-risk solid-organ transplant recipients.
(Clinical Trial;Journal Article;Multicenter Study)
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) D+/R- solid-organ transplant (SOT) recipients carry increased risk of developing CMV disease; however, other risk factors in these patients have not been delineated. METHODS: We examined 20 demographic and clinical variables for their association with the development of CMV disease, as defined by an independent endpoint committee (IEC) and also by the investigator (investigator treated [IT]), or CMV viremia within 12 months of transplant in D+/R- transplant recipients who received prophylaxis with valganciclovir or oral ganciclovir for 100 days. RESULTS: Recipients with low creatinine clearance (Ccr,<40 mL/min) at screening had a significantly increased hazard of developing IEC-defined CMV disease (hazards ratio [HR]=4.28, confidence interval [CI] 1.69, 10.83). Females were twice as likely (HR=2.19, CI .21, 3.99) to develop IEC-defined CMV disease than males. These variables were associated with an increased risk of IEC-defined CMV disease in time-dependent models. Recipients with blood group A were also more likely to develop IEC-defined CMV disease than those with group O (HR=2.36 CI 1.24, 4.51) in the logistic regression model only. Prophylactic drug, organ type, recipient age, rejection episodes, and maintenance immunosuppression regimen were not associated with IEC-defined CMV disease. Female sex was the only variable associated with the development of CMV viremia (odds ratio [OR]=1.65; CI 1.03, 2.65) and IT CMV disease (OR=1.78; CI 1.08, 2.93). CONCLUSIONS: Low Ccr at screening and blood type A are risk factors for IEC-defined CMV disease, and female sex was a risk factor for IEC- and IT-defined CMV disease and viremia in high-risk SOT recipients. These variables should perhaps be considered when optimizing treatment.
Freeman, RB; Paya, C; Pescovitz, MD; Humar, A; Dominguez, E; Washburn, K; Blumberg, E; Alexander, B; Heaton, N; Valganciclovir Solid Organ Transplant Study Group,
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