Brain oxygenation and CNS oxygen toxicity after infusion of perfluorocarbon emulsion.
Intravenous perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsions, administered with supplemental inspired O(2), are being evaluated for their ability to eliminate N(2) from blood and tissue prior to submarine escape, but these agents can increase the incidence of central nervous system (CNS) O(2) toxicity, perhaps by enhancing O(2) delivery to the brain. To assess this, we infused a PFC emulsion (Oxycyte, 6 ml/kg iv) into anesthetized rats and measured cerebral Po(2) and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and striatum with 100% O(2) at 1, 3, or 5 atmospheres absolute (ATA). At 1 ATA, brain Po(2) stabilized at >20 mmHg higher in animals infused with PFC emulsion than in control animals infused with saline, and rCBF fell by ~10%. At 3 ATA, PFC emulsion raised brain Po(2) >70 mmHg above control levels, and rCBF decreased by as much as 25%. At 5 ATA, brain Po(2) was ≥159 mmHg above levels in control animals for the first 40 min but then rose sharply; rCBF showed a similar profile, reflecting vasoconstriction followed by hyperemia. Conscious rats were also pretreated with PFC emulsion at 3 or 6 ml/kg iv and exposed to 100% O(2) at 5 ATA. At the lower dose, 80% of the animals experienced seizures by 33 min compared with 50% of the control animals. At the higher dose, seizures occurred in all rats within 25 min. At these doses, administration of PFC emulsion poses a clear risk of CNS O(2) toxicity in conscious rats exposed to hyperbaric O(2) at 5 ATA.
Demchenko, IT; Mahon, RT; Allen, BW; Piantadosi, CA
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