Gram-negative bacteremia upon hospital admission: when should Pseudomonas aeruginosa be suspected?
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an uncommon cause of community-acquired bacteremia among patients without severe immunodeficiency. Because tension exists between the need to limit unnecessary use of anti-pseudomonal agents and the need to avoid a delay in appropriate therapy, clinicians require better guidance regarding when to cover empirically for P. aeruginosa. We sought to determine the occurrence of and construct a model to predict P. aeruginosa bacteremia upon hospital admission. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in 4 tertiary care hospitals. Microbiology databases were searched to find all episodes of bacteremia caused by gram-negative rods (GNRs) 90 years, receipt of antimicrobial therapy within past 30 days, and presence of a central venous catheter or a urinary device. Among 250 patients without severe immunodeficiency, if no predictor variables existed, the likelihood of having P. aeruginosa bacteremia was 1:42. If >or= 2 predictors existed, the risk increased to nearly 1:3. CONCLUSIONS: P. aeruginosa bacteremia upon hospital admission in patients without severe immunodeficiency is rare. Among immunocompetent patients with suspected GNR bacteremia who have >or= 2 predictors, empirical anti-pseudomonal treatment is warranted.
Schechner, V; Nobre, V; Kaye, KS; Leshno, M; Giladi, M; Rohner, P; Harbarth, S; Anderson, DJ; Karchmer, AW; Schwaber, MJ; Carmeli, Y
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