Validation of the high-dose heparin confirmatory step for the diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.
The diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) requires detection of antibodies to the heparin/platelet factor 4 (PF4) complexes via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Addition of excess heparin to the sample decreases the optical density by 50% or more and confirms the presence of these antibodies. One hundred fifteen patients with anti-heparin/PF4 antibodies detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were classified as clinically HIT-positive or HIT-negative, followed by confirmation with excess heparin. A multivariate logistic regression model was fitted to estimate relationships between patient characteristics, laboratory findings, and clinical HIT status. This model was validated on an independent sample of 97 patients with anti-heparin/PF4 antibodies. No relationship between age, race, or sex and clinical HIT status was found. Maximal optical density and confirmatory positive status independently predicted HIT in multivariate analysis. Predictive accuracy on the training set (c-index 0.78, Brier score 0.17) was maintained when the algorithm was applied to the independent validation population (c-index 0.80, Brier score 0.20). This study quantifies the clinical utility of the confirmatory test to diagnose HIT. On the basis of data from the heparin/PF4 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and confirmatory assays, a predictive computer algorithm could distinguish patients likely to have HIT from those who do not.
Whitlatch, NL; Kong, DF; Metjian, AD; Arepally, GM; Ortel, TL
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