Assessing myocardial perfusion with Albunex during coronary artery bypass surgery: technical considerations and safety of aortic root injections.
OBJECTIVE: To test the safety and report on limiting technical considerations, including optimal dosing of Albunex (Molecular Biosystems, Inc, Mallinckrodt Medical, St. Louis, MO) for myocardial opacification after intra-aortic root injections during cardiac surgery. DESIGN: This was a prospective randomized study with a control group who did not receive Albunex and a group who received intra-aortic root injections of Albunex. SETTING: Multicenter (two) independent university hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: 32 patients scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass surgery were evaluated after individual informed consent was obtained. INTERVENTIONS: 2 to 8 mL of Albunex were injected before and after coronary revascularization. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Quality of enhancement in each of four regions of the left ventricle was assessed from a short-axis mid-papillary ultrasound image by three experienced observers blinded to dose. Electrocardiogram (ECG), creatine phosphokinase (CPK) (MB fraction), and hemodynamics were evaluated at baseline and throughout the study period for up to 72 hours. No differences were noted between groups with respect to preoperative and postoperative CPK enzymes (CPK-MB fraction), ECG changes, hemodynamics, requirements for separation from CPB, need for postoperative inotropes, time to extubation, and time to discharge from the intensive care unit. The average total dose of Albunex injected was 19 mL +/- 4 (0.25 mL/kg). A single dose of 4.2 +/- 1.2 mL (0.05 mL/kg) appeared to offer optimal enhancement of contrast effect for myocardial perfusion assessment. CONCLUSION: Albunex is safe and easy to use for myocardial opacification when administered via an antegrade cardioplegia catheter into the aortic root during CPB.
Aronson, S; Savage, R; Fernandez, A; Klein, A; Young, C; Toledano, A; Lee, BK; Karp, RB; Lytle, B; Loop, F
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