Evaluation of changes in skeletal muscle blood flow in the dog with contrast ultrasonography.
Intraoperative methods to assess skeletal muscle blood flow or muscle-flap perfusion during vascular reconstructive surgery are limited. At present, techniques enable only anatomic identification of the degree of patency of large vessels. We report here the first use of ultrasonography to assess dynamic changes in skeletal muscle perfusion. Baseline blood flow in the adductor muscle group of the hindlimbs of seven dogs was measured with an electromagnetic flow probe and with contrast ultrasound using the contrast agent Albunex. Blood flow was manipulated in each dog pharmacologically with random administration of intraarterial injections of Neo-Synephrine and papaverine. After each change in blood flow detected by electromagnetic flow probe, flow also was assessed qualitatively by four independent observers who graded video-recorded contrast enhancement in the muscle group on a 0 to 4 scale. Videodensitometry also was used to generate time versus intensity curves in the adductor muscle region of interest. Peak pixel intensity was determined during each flow condition. A total of 21 flow measurements were made with each assessment scheme (electromagnetic flow probe, video enhancement, videodensitometry) for each condition (7 control, 7 papaverine, 7 Neo-Synephrine). Changes in blood flow assessed by video enhancement scores and changes in peak pixel intensity correlated with changes measured by electromagnetic flow probe (r = 0.84 and 0.66, respectively). We conclude that contrast ultrasound may be used to detect changes in skeletal muscle perfusion intraoperatively. Measures of muscle perfused by visual inspection of contrast enhancement and videodensitometric data were in agreement with direct measurements of changes in skeletal muscle blood flow.
Aronson, S; Walker, R; Wiencek, JG; Zaroff, JG; Feinstein, SB; Zachary, L
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