Myocardial distribution of cardioplegic solution after retrograde delivery in patients undergoing cardiac surgical procedures.
The myocardial distribution of both antegrade and retrograde cardioplegia for cardiac surgical intervention, after induction of cardioplegia via the aortic root, was directly assessed and compared in 19 patients by means of contrast echocardiography. Two-dimensional transesophageal echocardiographic images of the short axis of the left ventricle at the level of the papillary muscles were obtained after sonicated Renografin-76 microbubbles were injected into an aortic root and/or transatrial coronary sinus catheter during delivery of cardioplegic solution. Segmental distribution of cardioplegic solution was immediately noted in the myocardium at the time of contrast injections. In 11 of 18 patients (61%) cardioplegic solution was dispersed to all left ventricular myocardial segments after antegrade delivery. In 17 of 19 patients (90%) retrogradely delivered cardioplegic solution (after antegrade induction of cardioplegia in 18 of the 19 patients) was dispersed to all the left ventricular myocardial segments, including the septum. In 2 of the patients, initial lack of retrograde distribution of cardioplegic solution was remedied when the coronary sinus catheter was repositioned and contrast cardioplegic solution was reinjected. Imaging of the right ventricle was possible in only 4 of the 19 patients and revealed that after retrograde delivery, cardioplegic solution had been at least partially distributed to the right ventricle as well. We performed off-line videodensitometric analysis in 9 patients after retrograde delivery of cardioplegic solution. Mean peak pixel-intensity ratio of flow from the endocardium to the epicardium in the left ventricular free wall was 1.46 +/- 0.27, and mean peak pixel-intensity ratio of flow from the left to the right intraventricular septal endocardium was 1.39 +/- 0.33 (p < or = 0.05).
Aronson, S; Lee, BK; Zaroff, JG; Wiencek, JG; Walker, R; Feinstein, S; Karp, RB
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