Assessment of myocardial perfusion during CABG surgery with two-dimensional transesophageal contrast echocardiography.
No reliable, quantifiable index of tissue perfusion is currently available to assess the efforts of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. We used two-dimensional transesophageal contrast echocardiography with sonicated Renografin-76 microbubbles to determine the distribution of myocardial blood flow during coronary artery bypass graft surgery in 15 patients. Sonicated Renografin-76 contrast agent was injected into the aortic root of all patients after institution of cardiopulmonary bypass and application of the aortic occlusive clamp. Eight patients had contrast agent injected directly into the free proximal end of the vein-CABG anastomosis. All patients again received aortic root injections during reperfusion after anastomosis of the proximal aortovein and distal coronary artery. Echocardiographic images of the left ventricle short axis at the level of the papillary muscles were obtained in real time and analyzed retrospectively from videotape. Injection of contrast provided information about the magnitude and geometric distribution of coronary artery-vein bypass run-off and enabled identification of poorly perfused myocardial regions. When predicted myocardial perfusion patterns, based on preoperative evaluation of epicardial vessel distribution derived from coronary angiography, were compared to actual perfusion patterns assessed with intraoperative echocardiography, contrast regional myocardial perfusion patterns were predicted 84% of the time (71-97%, 95% confidence limit). Regional myocardial perfusion deficits detected after coronary bypass grafting were associated with regional wall motion abnormalities detected after separation from cardiopulmonary bypass. Our technique makes possible on-line visualization of changes in regional blood flow in the heart before, during, and after CABG.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Aronson, S; Lee, BK; Wiencek, JG; Feinstein, SB; Roizen, MF; Karp, RB; Ellis, JE
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