The kinetics of urinary fumonisin B1 excretion in humans consuming maize-based diets.
SCOPE: Fumonisins (FB) are mycotoxins found in maize. The purpose of this study was to (i) determine the relationship between FB(1) , FB(2) , and FB(3) intake and urinary excretion in humans, (ii) validate a method to isolate urinary FB on C(18) -SPE cartridges for international shipment, and (iii) test the method using samples from Guatemala. METHODS AND RESULTS: Volunteers (n = 10) consumed 206 grams/day of tortillas and biscuits prepared from masa flour and a product containing maize flour. Volunteers estimated their daily urine output and samples were analyzed for FB(1) , FB(2) , and FB(3) and hydrolyzed FB(1) . Only FB(1) was detected in urine suggesting lower absorption of FB(2) and FB(3) . Excretion was highly variable peaking soon after consumption began and decreasing rapidly after consumption stopped. Within 5 days after consumption ended, FB(1) was not detected in urine. In a study with eight volunteers, the average total urinary FB(1) was 0.5% of the intake. FB(1) was detected in 61% (107/177) of the samples collected in Guatemala. CONCLUSION: The results support the use of urinary FB(1) to assess ongoing exposure in population-based studies. However, relating the FB(1) concentration in urine to dietary intake of FB by individual subjects will be complicated due to interindividual variability and the rapidity of clearance.
Riley, RT; Torres, O; Showker, JL; Zitomer, NC; Matute, J; Voss, KA; Gelineau-van Waes, J; Maddox, JR; Gregory, SG; Ashley-Koch, AE
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