Glaucoma masqueraders: Diagnosis by spectral domain optical coherence tomography.
BACKGROUND: Advances in optic nerve and retinal imaging have dramatically changed the care of glaucoma patients, complementing the importance of the clinical exam of the optic nerve and automated perimetry in making the diagnosis of glaucoma. Computerized imaging, however, does not replace the clinical exam, as there can be overlap in the appearance of non-glaucomatous optic neuropathies with glaucoma. METHODS: The spectral domain optic coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images of five patients with non-glaucomatous optic nerve pathology are presented. CASES: The first patient had bilateral temporal thinning on OCT imaging and subsequent positive syphilis testing. The second patient had a glaucomatous-appearing inferior arcuate scotoma and associated superior thinning on OCT; these findings were due to buried optic nerve head drusen, clearly appreciated on OCT of the optic nerve head. Bilateral diffuse macular thinning, with preservation of the superior and inferior fiber bundles, was seen in the third patient, who had multiple sclerosis, with no clinical history of optic neuritis. Dense and marked thinning of a macular half, respecting the horizontal meridian, is seen in two patients, one patient with non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and lastly, in a patient with hemi-retinal vein occlusion. CONCLUSION: SD-OCT of the optic nerve and retina complements the essential clinical examination of patients with glaucomatous and non-glaucomatous optic neuropathies.
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