Acute effects of inhaled nitric oxide on pulmonary and cardiac function in preterm infants with evolving bronchopulmonary dysplasia.
BACKGROUND: Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) reduces pulmonary vascular resistance by preferential vasodilation in ventilated lung units. In experimental animals, iNO also reduces airway resistance by smooth muscle relaxation. Hence, there may be a therapeutic role for iNO in evolving bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the acute effects of low-dose iNO on lung mechanics, ventilation distribution, oxygenation, and cardiac function in preterm infants with evolving BPD. METHODS: Measurements of lung compliance (C(L)), airway resistance (R(L)), ventilation-distribution (N(2) clearance in multiple-breath washout), oxygenation (SpO(2)), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and right ventricular shortening fraction were obtained before and during 2 hours of iNO (10 ppm) in a group of ventilated preterm infants with evolving BPD. RESULTS: A total of 13 preterm infants with (mean+/-SD) BW: 663.8+/-116 g, GA: 24.9+/-1.2 weeks, age: 32+/-14 days, mean airway pressure: 6.7+/-0.9 cmH(2)O and fraction of inspired oxygen: 0.35+/-0.06 were studied. iNO did not affect C(L), R(L) or N(2) clearance. There was a small increase in LVEF. Mean SpO(2) remained unchanged, but the duration of spontaneous hypoxemic episodes increased during iNO. CONCLUSION: Low-dose iNO had no acute effects on lung function, cardiac function and oxygenation in evolving BPD.
Athavale, K; Claure, N; D'Ugard, C; Everett, R; Swaminathan, S; Bancalari, E
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