Anti-neutrophil chemokine preserves alveolar development in hyperoxia-exposed newborn rats
Inflammation may contribute to lung injury and impaired alveolar development in bronchopulmonary dysplasia. We treated hyperoxia-exposed newborn rats with antibodies to the neutrophil chemokine cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 (CINC-1) during 95% O2 exposure to reduce adverse effects of hyperoxia-induced inflammation on lung development. Rats were exposed at birth to air, 95% O2, or 95% O2 + anti-CINC-1 (injected on days 3 and 4). Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was injected 6 h before death. Anti-CINC-1 treatment improved weight gain but not survival at day 8. Anti-CINC-1 reduced bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophils at day 8 to levels equal to air controls. Total detectable lung CINC-1 was reduced to air control levels. Lung compliance was improved by anti-CINC-1, achieving air control levels in the 10-μg anti-CINC-1 group. Anti-CINC-1 preserved proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression in airway epithelium despite 95% O2 exposure. BrdU incorporation was depressed by hyperoxia but preserved by anti-CINC-1 to levels similar to air control. Alveolar volume and surface density were decreased by hyperoxia but preserved by anti-CINC-1 to levels equal to air control. Blockade of neutrophil influx in newborns may avert early lung injury and avoid alveolar developmental arrest that contributes to bronchopulmonary dysplasia.