Infective endocarditis: a comprehensive overview.
Infective endocarditis (IE) is an infection of a heart valve or other cardiac structure at a site of endothelial damage. The definition has been also expanded to include infected cardiac devices. A variety of organ systems may be adversely affected in patients with IE. Although advances have improved the diagnostic accuracy for IE, morbidity and mortality remain remarkably high. This article reviews the pathophysiology, complications, diagnosis, and management of IE with recent updates to the literature and the major cardiovascular society guidelines. The increasingly prevalent clinical problem of intracardiac device-related IE is addressed, along with the recent changes to the IE prophylaxis guidelines.
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