Aortic valve replacement in adults after balloon aortic valvuloplasty
Background: Percutaneous balloon aortic valvuloplasty is limited by a high risk of procedural morbidity, transient clinical benefit, and a high restenosis rate. The management of patients with symptomatic aortic valve restenosis after percutaneous balloon aortic valvuloplasty is unclear. We hypothesized that aortic valve replacement would produce superior midterm survival compared with repeat balloon aortic valvuloplasty or medication alone in patients with symptomatic aortic valve restenosis after prior balloon aortic valvuloplasty. Methods and Results: Baseline clinical, echocardiographic, and hemodynamic data were collected on 165 patients who underwent percutaneous balloon aortic valvuloplasty as treatment for symptomatic degenerative calcific aortic stenosis. In 144 of these patients (87%), aortic valve replacement was originally considered to carry excessive risk. The survival of three subgroups was calculated during a median follow- up period of 3.9 years (range, 1 to 6 years). Ninety-four patients (57%) had no further mechanical intervention (subgroup 1-BAV), 31 patients (19%) developed symptomatic aortic valve restenosis and underwent a repeat balloon aortic valvuloplasty (subgroup 2-BAV), and 40 patients (24%) subsequently underwent aortic valve replacement (subgroup BAV+AVR). Follow-up was 99% complete. Patients in subgroup BAV+AVR tended to be younger and have a lower prevalence of coronary artery disease or mitral regurgitation. Only 1 patient (2.5%) suffered a perioperative death during aortic valve replacement. The probability of survival 3 years from the date of the last mechanical intervention was 13% for subgroup 1-BAV, 20% for subgroup 2-BAV, and 75% for subgroup BAV+AVR. At the conclusion of follow-up, only 2 patients had symptoms of congestive heart failure or angina after aortic valve replacement. Conclusions: Aortic valve replacement may be performed with a low mortality rate, excellent palliation of symptoms, and prolongation of survival in selected high-risk patients with a history of previous balloon aortic valvuloplasty.
Lieberman, EB; Wilson, JS; Harrison, JK; Pieper, KS; Kisslo, KB; Lowe, J; Jr, JD; Trigt, PV; Glower, DD; Davidson, CJ; Bashore, TM
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