Impact of electrostatics in redox modulation of oxidative stress by Mn porphyrins: protection of SOD-deficient Escherichia coli via alternative mechanism where Mn porphyrin acts as a Mn carrier.
Understanding the factors that determine the ability of Mn porphyrins to scavenge reactive species is essential for tuning their in vivo efficacy. We present herein the revised structure-activity relationships accounting for the critical importance of electrostatics in the Mn porphyrin-based redox modulation systems and show that the design of effective SOD mimics (per se) based on anionic porphyrins is greatly hindered by inappropriate electrostatics. A new strategy for the beta-octabromination of the prototypical anionic Mn porphyrins Mn(III) meso-tetrakis(p-carboxylatophenyl)porphyrin ([Mn(III)TCPP](3-) or MnTBAP(3-)) and Mn(III) meso-tetrakis(p-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin ([Mn(III)TSPP](3-)), to yield the corresponding anionic analogues [Mn(III)Br(8)TCPP](3-) and [Mn(III)Br(8)TSPP](3-), respectively, is described along with characterization data, stability studies, and their ability to substitute for SOD in SOD-deficient Escherichia coli. Despite the Mn(III)/Mn(II) reduction potential of [Mn(III)Br(8)TCPP](3-) and [Mn(III)Br(8)TSPP](3-) being close to the SOD-enzyme optimum and nearly identical to that of the cationic Mn(III) meso-tetrakis(N-methylpyridinium-2-yl)porphyrin (Mn(III)TM-2-PyP(5+)), the SOD activity of both anionic brominated porphyrins ([Mn(III)Br(8)TCPP](3-), E(1/2)=+213 mV vs NHE, log k(cat)=5.07; [Mn(III)Br(8)TSPP](3-), E(1/2)=+209 mV, log k(cat)=5.56) is considerably lower than that of Mn(III)TM-2-PyP(5+) (E(1/2)=+220 mV, log k(cat)=7.79). This illustrates the impact of electrostatic guidance of O(2)(-) toward the metal center of the mimic. With low k(cat), the [Mn(III)TCPP](3-), [Mn(III)TSPP](3-), and [Mn(III)Br(8)TCPP](3-) did not rescue SOD-deficient E. coli. The striking ability of [Mn(III)Br(8)TSPP](3-) to substitute for the SOD enzymes in the E. coli model does not correlate with its log k(cat). In fact, the protectiveness of [Mn(III)Br(8)TSPP](3-) is comparable to or better than that of the potent SOD mimic Mn(III)TM-2-PyP(5+), even though the dismutation rate constant of the anionic complex is 170-fold smaller. Analyses of the medium and E. coli cell extract revealed that the major species in the [Mn(III)Br(8)TSPP](3-) system is not the Mn complex, but the free-base porphyrin [H(2)Br(8)TSPP](4-) instead. Control experiments with extracellular MnCl(2) showed the lack of E. coli protection, indicating that "free" Mn(2+) cannot enter the cell to a significant extent. We proposed herein the alternative mechanism where a labile Mn porphyrin [Mn(III)Br(8)TSPP](3-) is not an SOD mimic per se but carries Mn into the E. coli cell.
Rebouças, JS; DeFreitas-Silva, G; Spasojević, I; Idemori, YM; Benov, L; Batinić-Haberle, I
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