Hemodynamic, mechanical, and metabolic determinants of thrombolytic efficacy: A theoretic framework for assessing the limitations of thrombolysis in patients with cardiogenic shock
Although thrombolytic therapy has been shown to limit infarct size, preserve left ventricular function, and improve survival in most subgroups of patients with acute MI, a benefit has not been demonstrated in patients with clinical left ventricular dysfunction or overt cardiogenic shock before treatment is initiated. The reason(s) for the lack of benefit derived from thrombolytic therapy in these settings is unclear. Left ventricular dysfunction and overt cardiogenic shock are the result of extensive myocardial necrosis, typically in excess of 30% of the left ventricle, which progresses over time. The available data suggest that thrombolytic efficacy is decreased because of either hemodynamic, mechabical, or metabolic factors. As a result coronary patency is rarely achieved in a timely fashion, and if patency is achieved it typically is not maintained. The ability of mechanical revascularization by means of balloon angioplasty to reduce mortality suggests that reperfusion is a key determinant of outcome even among patients with large infarctions and early signs of left ventricular dysfunction. Thrombolytic therapy, which is widely available and extensively tested, represents the standard of care for patients with acute MI. Its apparent lack of efficacy in patients with congestive heart failure and cardiogenic shock is poorly understood. Further investigation must there-fore be undertaken. © 1993.
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