Smoking in help-seeking veterans with PTSD returning from Afghanistan and Iraq.
Past research has shown that veterans and individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have increased rates of smoking. However, the rates of smoking in younger help-seeking veterans returning from Afghanistan and Iraq, and possible correlates of smoking among this population are unknown. In this study, we evaluated the rate of lifetime and current smoking among a sample of 90 returning male veterans diagnosed with PTSD. Fifty-nine percent reported a lifetime history of smoking including 32% that were current smokers. Current smokers were significantly younger than non-smokers. Current smokers (mean age=31) reported a mean age of smoking onset as 15.86 with a pack year history of 8.89. These smokers reported on average five previous quit attempts. According to a stages of change model, one-half of the smokers were in the contemplation phase of stopping smoking (50%), 29% were in the pre-contemplation phase and 21% were in the preparation phase. The results are placed in the context of non-psychiatric and psychiatric smokers.
Kirby, AC; Hertzberg, BP; Collie, CF; Yeatts, B; Dennis, MF; McDonald, SD; Calhoun, PS; Beckham, JC
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