Factorial invariance of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms across three veteran samples.
Research generally supports a 4-factor structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. However, few studies have established factor invariance by comparing multiple groups. This study examined PTSD symptom structure using the Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS) across three veteran samples: treatment-seeking Vietnam-era veterans, treatment-seeking post-Vietnam-era veterans, and Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veteran research participants. Confirmatory factor analyses of DTS items demonstrated that a 4-factor structural model of the DTS (reexperiencing, avoidance, numbing, and hyperarousal) was superior to five alternate models, including the conventional 3-factor model proposed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994). Results supported factor invariance across the three veteran cohorts, suggesting that cross-group comparisons are interpretable. Implications and applications for DSM-IV nosology and the validity of symptom measures are discussed.
McDonald, SD; Beckham, JC; Morey, R; Marx, C; Tupler, LA; Calhoun, PS
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