Smoking and anxiety in combat veterans with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder: a review.
Journal Article (Journal Article;Review)
There is growing evidence that smoking, and in particular heavy smoking, is prevalent in Vietnam combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. However, the pathways responsible for development and perpetuation of smoking in this clinical population have not been identified. Relevant smoking, substance abuse, and anxiety disorder research is reviewed. Although an association between smoking and PTSD has not been directly tested, there is evidence that such research is warranted. Suggestions for future research are offered.
- Beckham, JC
Volume / Issue
- 31 / 2
Start / End Page
- 103 - 110
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
- United States