Donor-bridge-acceptor energetics determine the distance dependence of electron tunneling in DNA.
Electron transfer (ET) processes in DNA are of current interest because of their involvement in oxidative strand cleavage reactions and their relevance to the development of molecular electronics. Two mechanisms have been identified for ET in DNA, a single-step tunneling process and a multistep charge-hopping process. The dynamics of tunneling reactions depend on both the distance between the electron donor and acceptor and the nature of the molecular bridge separating the donor and acceptor. In the case of protein and alkane bridges, the distance dependence is not strongly dependent on the properties of the donor and acceptor. In contrast, we show here that the distance decay of DNA ET rates varies markedly with the energetics of the donor and acceptor relative to the bridge. Specifically, we find that an increase in the energy of the bridge states by 0.25 eV (1 eV = 1.602 x 10(-19) J) relative to the donor and acceptor energies for photochemical oxidation of nucleotides, without changing the reaction free energy, results in an increase in the characteristic exponential distance decay constant for the ET rates from 0.71 to 1.1 A(-1). These results show that, in the small tunneling energy gap regime of DNA ET, the distance dependence is not universal; it varies strongly with the tunneling energy gap. These DNA ET reactions fill a "missing link" or transition regime between the large barrier (rapidly decaying) tunneling regime and the (slowly decaying) hopping regime in the general theory of bridge-mediated ET processes.
Lewis, FD; Liu, J; Weigel, W; Rettig, W; Kurnikov, IV; Beratan, DN
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