Accelerated treatment using intensity-modulated radiation therapy plus concurrent capecitabine for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma.
BACKGROUND: : Patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have limited treatment options. In this study, the authors investigated the feasibility, toxicity, and efficacy associated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and concurrent, chronomodulated capecitabine in the treatment of unresectable HCC. METHODS: : Twenty patients underwent treatment planning for HCC confined to the liver with helical tomotherapy-based IMRT. Fifty-five percent of patients had Child-Pugh Class A disease, and 45% of patients had Class B disease. Ninety-five percent of patients were prescribed 50 gray (Gy) of radiotherapy to the planning target volume delivered in 20 fractions with concurrent, chronomodulated capecitabine. Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization preceded radiotherapy in 11 patients, and 9 patients received IMRT alone because of portal vein thrombosis, esophageal varices, or tumor size. RESULTS: : The mean greatest tumor dimension was 9 cm (range, 1.3-17.4 cm), the mean dose to normal liver was 22.6 Gy (range, 10-29.2 Gy), and the average volume of liver that received >30 Gy (V30) was 27.2% (range, 12%-43%). Eighteen patients (90%) completed the prescribed treatment of 50 Gy. There was no increase from baseline in acute or late toxicity greater than 2 grades. Partial response or disease stability was achieved at 3 months to 6 months after treatment in 15 of 16 patients (94%). The median survival (+/-standard deviation) for patients who had Child-Pugh Class A and B disease was 22.5 +/- 5.1 months and 8 +/- 3.3 months, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: : In this initial experience with accelerated IMRT plus capecitabine for patients who had large HCC lesions, the results demonstrated acceptable toxicity with promising local control. The relatively low acute and late toxicity observed with this program suggested that dose intensification can be incorporated into the treatment regimen if needed. Cancer 2009. (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.
McIntosh, A; Hagspiel, KD; Al-Osaimi, AM; Northup, P; Caldwell, S; Berg, C; Angle, JF; Argo, C; Weiss, G; Rich, TA
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