Characterization of the binding epitope of the monoclonal antibody DMAb-1 to ganglioside GM2.
Several derivatives of ganglioside GM2 were synthesized for mapping of the binding epitope of a monoclonal antibody raised against this ganglioside. The GM2 ganglioside was modified in both the hydrophobic and the hydrophobilic part of the molecule. The synthesized derivatives were characterized with fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS). Affinity of the monoclonal antibody for the GM2 derivatives was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on microtitre plates or by TLC immunostaining. Modifying the GM2 sialic acid by deacetylation or blocking of the carboxyl moiety abolished the binding to the monoclonal antibody while the cleaving of the glycol group on the sialic acid tail led to a 70% reduced binding affinity. Removal of the fatty acid (lyso-GM2) eliminated the binding to the antibody. GM2 derivatives with fatty acid moieties of 8 carbon atoms or less showed almost no reactivity. GM2 with saturated fatty acids 16:0, 18:0 and 20:0 had binding affinity similar to natural GM2, while the 24:0 fatty acid had only half the binding affinity. The results demonstrate the importance of ganglioside fatty acid composition with regard to ligand binding between the monoclonal antibody and its specific ganglioside antigen. Thus, caution must be shown in the application of immunaffinity methods with monoclonal antibodies for the quantitative determination of glycosphingolipids from different tissues.
Karlsson, G; Månsson, JE; Wikstrand, C; Bigner, D; Svennerholm, L
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