Hypertension and obesity as cardiovascular risk factors among HIV seropositive patients in Western Kenya.
BACKGROUND: There is increased risk of cardiovascular disease among HIV seropositive individuals. The prevalence of HIV is highest in sub-Saharan Africa; however, HIV-related cardiovascular risk research is largely derived from developed country settings. Herein, we describe the prevalence of hypertension and obesity in a large HIV treatment program in Kenya. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of the electronic medical records of a large HIV treatment program in Western Kenya between 2006 and 2009. We calculated the prevalence of hypertension and obesity among HIV+ adults as well as utilized multiple logistic regression analyses to examine the relationship between clinical characteristics, HIV-related characteristics, and hypertension. RESULTS: Our final sample size was 12,194. The median systolic/diastolic blood pressures were similar for both sexes (male: 110/70 mmHg, female: 110/70 mmHg). The prevalence of hypertension among men and women were 11.2% and 7.4%, respectively. Eleven percent of men and 22.6% of women were overweight/obese (body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2)). Ordinal logistic regression analyses showed that overweight/obesity was more strongly associated with hypertension among HIV+ men (OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.88-3.09) than a higher successive age category (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.40-1.87 comparing 16-35, 36-45 and >45 years categories). Among women, higher age category and overweight/obesity were most strongly associated with hypertension (age category: OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.95-2.50, overweight/obesity: OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.50-2.16). Length of time on protease inhibitors was not found to be related to hypertension for men (OR 1.62, 95% CI 0.42-6.20) or women (OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.37-2.65) after adjustment for CD4 count, age and BMI. CONCLUSION: In Western Kenya, there is a high prevalence of hypertension and overweight/obesity among HIV+ patients with differences observed between men and women. The care of HIV+ patients in sub-Saharan Africa should also include both identification and management of associated cardiovascular risk factors.
Bloomfield, GS; Hogan, JW; Keter, A; Sang, E; Carter, EJ; Velazquez, EJ; Kimaiyo, S
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