Hemoglobin providence. Functional consequences of two alterations of the 2,3-diphosphoglycerate binding site at position beta 82.
Position beta 82 in human hemoglobin (Hb) is normally occupied by lysine, a positively charged residue that is involved in the binding of anionic cofactors. This residue is substituted by a neutral residue in Hb Providence Asn and by a negatively charged residue in Hb Providence Asp. Hb Providence Asp shows more differences from Hb A than does Hb Providence Asn in studies of the kinetics and equilibria of ligand binding. For both forms, homotropic (cooperative) interactions are normal with n values of 2.5 to 2.7, while heterotropic (pH and anion) interactions are reduced greatly. The reduction in anion sensitivity is attributed to the absence of a positive residue at position beta 82. Reduction in pH sensitivity may be due to a ligand-linked change in the pK of a neighboring residue, beta 143 histidine, which normally is not a Bohr group. This change in pK would act in opposition to the normal Bohr effect. Reduction in the net positive charge of the central cavity has a further consequence. Relative to Hb A, both Hb Providence Asn and Hb Providence Asp show decreased oxygen affinities at neutral pH in the absence of cofactors. This suggests that in Hb A the binding of anionic cofactors directly influences the oxygen affinity by neutralizing the charged groups of the diphosphoglycerate binding site and thus stabilizing the low affinity (T) conformation. From pH 6 to 9 in the presence of 1 M NaCl, where all the charged groups may be masked, the oxygen-binding properties of Hb A and the Hb Providence mutants are identical. Moreover, subunit dissociation of the liganded Hb Providence mutants appears to be increased, as is known to occur for Hb A in the presence of high salt. The results obtained with Hb Providence Asn and Hb Providence Asp illustrate how single amino acid substitutions can modify hemoglobins' pH and anion interactions without altering cooperative interactions between subunits. The alteration in cofactor effects observed with these mutants also illustrates differences between the allosteric effects induced by organic and inorganic anions.
Bonaventura, J; Bonaventura, C; Sullivan, B; Ferruzzi, G; McCurdy, PR; Fox, J; Moo-Penn, WF
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